Hubble telescope looks up 13 billion years back to the early days of the universe and discovers the first galactic building blocks
The galaxies, the world’s islands in the cosmic ocean, the matter oases in the Westenmeer, which we currently watch Via Telescope were at the beginning of their existence strikingly smaller. They were created from many small galactic components. The oldest of this made the NASA-ESA Space Telescope Hubble for four years ago in the course of a systematic screening of a selected sky cutout. Now some old pictures were taken more closely in the magnifying glass and confirmed with the orbital sharpener telescope. The image of the openity presents image shows galaxies ‘en miniature’, which says and write almost 13 billion years old.
Excellent is the success story of Hubble Deep Fields, which initiated the Space Telescope Science Institute (STSCI) in 1993, when one was already considered with a hitherto, but unprecedented idea has been presented in practice.
Deep look back
Why should not you fix the space telescope for several hours on a narrow point in space and wait, which requires the sensitive Hubble cameras to days? Thought – done. Instead of carrying out a broad observation, the astronomers used the precious observation time to target a seemingly dark spot on the northern sky for many hours. The result spoke for himself and revolutionized the astronomy. For the first time, there were a variety of galaxies in empty regions of the universe as the universe was still very, very young. Since then, these so-called deep-field observations are ‘en vogue’. From 3. September 2003 to 16. In January 2004, Hubble looked at Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) deep into the early season of the universe and undressed the cosmos, as he once "looked" 800 million years after the big bang.
One of the most important tasks of Deep Field is the analysis of Cosmo-archaic galaxies. Here are the questions in the foreground, which are the oldest galaxies and the oldest stars in it? When and how did they have emerged? Last but not least, the researchers are also looking for an answer to the question of which "building blocks" the galaxies of our days are composed.
The sharpener infrared telescope supported supportively a five-day observation sequence in February 2004 and confirmed the Hubble data. Image: NASA / JPL-Caltech
700 million years after the big bang
The current theoremodel of galaxy development ames that smaller galaxies summarized in the early season of the cosmos and in this way successive greater starches generated. Only so far, there was no astronomer team to look deep into the universe to prove this extremely small and especially young galaxy modules.
With the help of the NASA-ESA Space Telescope Hubble and thanks to the values support of the orbital NASA observatory sharpener and as a result of the cooperation of the European Sudsternwarte (ESO), astronomers briefly presented an astro image on which the oldest ever photographed cosmic objects can be seen. As part of Ultra-Deep Field Scanning, which was carried out by September 2003 to January 2004, Hubble has biased unexplored regions of the ALLS, in which galaxies are native to more than 13 billion years old, so estimated to be 700 million years the big bang.
The current Hubble Ultra Deep Field recording … Image: NASA, ESA, N. Pirzkal (STSCI / ESA) and the HUDF Team (STSCI)
What the Astronomers James Rhoads from the Arizona State University and Chun Xu from the Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics in Shanghai (China) in the constellation fornax and published in short, is a novelty in the 15-year deep-field history. The localized world islands are nine compact miniature galaxies, each of which 100 to 1.000 times less mass than our milk strain, but but hundreds of millions of stars has. "Nevertheless, they are one of the mass-poor galaxies that have ever been discovered in the Fruhen Universe," says Nor Pirzkal, an ESA astronomer of the Hubble Team. From the nine discovered original galaxy building blocks, the scientists suspected, in the course of time, greater galaxies have been composed.
Increased section of the current HUDF image, which shows (at least) two melting jungchalaxies image: NASA, ESA, N. Pirzkal (STSCI / ESA) and the HUDF Team (STSCI)
Present infrared light
The current success is based on teamwork. When the researchers took the data for the first time for the first time, the surprise was roughly that the distant galaxies were in terms of mass and coarse so small. In order to confirm the measurement data, the Hubble team consulted his colleagues with the infrared space telescope. Spitzer observed the predetermined destination region for five days and was able to confirm the age, the crowd and the Extragalactic status of the Junggalaxia.
In the screening, sharpener could not collect infrared light, which values the NASA and ESA researchers as a clear document for the star populations in the young galaxies are probably the first stellar generation after the big bang. Normally, infrared radiation is primarily emitted by interstellar dust. Since the observed star population is the first of its kind, logically, no heavy elements could be generated by Supernovae and has been thrown into the interstellar space. In this epoch, simply no dust could form, the infrared light emitted. Sangeeta Malhotra by the Arizona State University in Tempe confirmed this facts: "During Hubble saw a blue light in these galaxies and thus the Prasenz of Stars reworth, sharpened in the infrared light no or only weakly glowing stars could discover. This is another proof of Dafur that it must be young galaxies with young stars, as the early generations of stars barely donated infrared radiation."
Hubble – For more than 17 years in the All Image: NASA
For the detected blue light are blue stars or. "Blue Giant" Responsible, a starch class in all rarely. Such massive suns have up to a hundred sun diameter and convert due to their high masses, which leads to a high material density in the starness to a high material density, infiltrics in their inside hydrogen and helium to heavier elements – but in record time. Therefore, massive blue stars live 100 to a maximum of 500 million years, which for normal Stars a strikingly short period is. Our Puncto mass average yellow glowing sun, for example, comes to a lifespan of about 10 billion years.
As a result of the high surface temperature – it is more than 60000 Kelvin with some "blue giants" – ray accordingly light or. Blue and jump due to their enormous luminosity stronger eye as their less bright smaller species.
Hubble and sharpener have already successfully cooperated several times as part of the "Ultra Deep Field "Oservation. This image was published in 2005 and shows galaxies that are about 12.8 billion years old. Image: NASA, ESA, B. Mobasher (Space Telescope Science Institute and the European Space Agency)
As the pictures show, three of the young galaxies actively sequentially sharpened. Instead of the usual roundish spots, reveal the astro photos pattern with edgy forms. Certainly, this structure indicates that the small material islands have just taken towel feeling with the neighboring galaxies to unite to coarse structures. Some astronomers see in them the building blocks of our galaxies today.
The big bang is also "invisible" in the future … Unfortunately, picture: NASA
Cosmic PhotosPhare – The ultimate limit
Even though the researchers now have rated the Big Bang up to 700 million years, the gaze will continue to stop on natural boundaries. Since namely the universe for electromagnetic radiation of all kinds, but especially for light, was opaque, before it is about 380.000 years after the big bang on around 4.000 Kelvin cooled, we can not see today, what has happened long ago beyond this horizont.
Only when the former cosmic temperature had fallen accordingly, electrons and protons combined to neutral hydrogen. As a result, the gas free charge carrier was deprived, which had previously sprinkled the radiation so severely that the gas was opaque. After the formation of the atoms, the gas was transparent, and the radiation could spread almost freely. Now the photons could move unhindered – the space became transparent.
Increased cutout of the current HUDF image for the blue structure on the bottom left are Massele blue huge stars responsible Image: Nasa, ESA, N. Pirzkal (STSCI / ESA) and the HUDF Team (STSCI)
Our "view" endows where he protrudes into the early epoch in which the temperature of the cosmic matter high and the universe was a crude, mainly of protons, electrons and photons existing mass. ERGO is the distant view in the early space blocked by the cosmic photosphare – as if one was considered the blue sky through the bottom of water vapor clouds. Between the photon barrier given by the background radiation, the "cosmic fog wall" and our current horizon, is a universe universe incognitum, which we can not see and see. What in the period after the Planck time to approximately 380.000 years after the big bang in the universe, an unwritten book remains with eight Seal. An image of the light and silent big bang can not give it.