Italian scientists have developed a method to the consumption of Speed, Cocaine, Heroin and Cannabis "Almost in real time" to measure what they made in Milan, Lugano and London
The scientists from the Institute Mario Negre in Milan have made a sensational find for two years ago when they analyzed the water of the Po and found out that the Italian’s catchment area apparently becomes a lot more cocaine than you so far had accepted, by name 4 kilograms. Ahnetic results came a study by the Nurnberger Institute for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research (IBMP). Then the Germans on coke drives off, in Mannheim or Koln seemingly worse than in Berlin.
The results were surprisingly (sometimes down, but at the top, but always: cocaine). However, the Meb method in question, in which the concentration of the cocaine degradation product excreted with the urine detects benzoylecgonin in the water and is attributable to the cocaine amount occupied therefrom. In addition to other factors, it must also be incorporated, which was already destroyed by clear systems at benzoyleconin.
Now the Italian scientists have submitted a new analysis and investigated the wastewater on drug prepresses to their concentration "Almost in real time" to eat. As you write in your report, which has been published in the Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP), samples still withdraw untreated wastewater out of coarse clarics in Milan, Lugano and London, and examined them by mass spectrometry on chocolate of cocaine, opiates, cannabis and amphetamines. Again, again from the prere scenes of the drugs that are excreted with the urine was attributable to drug use.
With its proceedings, you can now find patterns and trends in the consumption of forbidden drugs in the city quickly as epidemiological real-time information. So not only the most popular noise time can be made, but also the national scores for drug use in individual city or communities. So far, the drug consumption becomes very inaccurate with surveys, criminal titatistics, medical information and the amounts of confiscated drugs statistically. Scientists point out that the Commission of Narcotic Drugs of the United States (UNODC) had demanded new methods last year in order to quickly determine changes in drug use.
Wastewater samples were taken over seven consecutive days every 20 minutes and analyzed on the drug prepress of opiates, cannabis, cocaine and amphetamines, which remain stable in the water. In the calculation, how much of the cocaine cut into the nose of the amount of degradation product found in the urine corresponds to benzoylecgonin. In Morphine, the morphine was considered, which is prescribed therapeutically in the countries. The measured concentrations were extrapolated on the seashore wastewater amount, which fleesen into the clear system and balanced with the number of people whose wastewater reaches them. This then results in the amount of drugs consumed per day per 1000 people. Of course, east is that the drugs in different quality and purity come on the market and consumed in different ways. The drug dosages calculated from the analyzes are based on average values amed by the UNODC. A dose of cocaine, which is carved over the nose, is 100 mg, a dose of amphetamine (oral) 30 mg, ecstasy (oral) 100 mg, heroin (intravenos) 30 mg, cannabis (smoked) 125 mg.
From the results you could make a kind of collective psychogram, based on the different drug use. In Milan, much less HASCH (3000mg per day per 1000 persons) is smoked than in Lugano (6500mg) and especially in London (7500mg), but here is a little more (900mg) bold than in the other two city. Also at heroin London is slightly front – especially at the amphetamines. Unlike Lugano and Milan, where it seems to be apparently without amphetamine, the British metropolis is on Speed. Methamphetamins are consumed a little more in Milan, but in Lugano you prefer ecstasy before. Relatively clear is that on Saturday the consumption of cocaine, amphetamines, metamphetines and ecstasy (especially high on Sunday) rises to the remaining days of the week, cannabis and heroin are continuously taken
Again, it is reflected again that the official statistics are not exactly. After that were in Milan 10.Consume 000 people cocaine. If these low consumers were, they were consumed about 16 grams per person per year. So you came to 160 kg per year. According to the wastewater volumes, this results in 330 kg per year, ie more than twice the amount, consumed. Therefore, there are either much more light consumers or more severe cocaine consumers.
Your approach of "Wastewater epidemiology" For the drug use, the scientists not only offer to measure the collective drug use of a city, but they think they are also existing or resulting "Hot spots" Discover, demonstrate whether counterclaims or praventive concepts work, or even on the basis of the empirically measured drug consumption, how much money is implemented in drug trafficking.