Sample removal venues along the Elbe and the magnification of its side rivets. Fig.: Chemosphere 2004
Medicines are omnipresent in the Elbe and their tributaries
In Germany are about. 3000 Pharmaceutical Praparates for Medical Application. The year sale moves in the thousand ton area. But what is from these drugs after taking when their healing effects have long been subsided?
Okotoxicological effects of pharmaca on the environment enjoy growing interest in the publicity (cf. British totally relaxed). However, the currently available data does not allow adequate risk assessment regarding the occurrence of pharmacological products in Wassers.
A group of German scientists from various striking institutions (Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety, GKSS Research Center, Environmental Agency, University of Hamburg, Water Goods Municipality Elbe, UFZ Leipzig / Halle, State Environmental Business Society Saxony), in the October ie of Chemosphere, set the results of a Community investigation into the drugstore Elbe and her side arms before.
The distribution of different pharmaca between the ELB source and Hamburg was examined and a Potpourri moving in the direction of North Sea from various painkillers, antibiotics, lipid core, anti-rheumatics, antiepileptics, mucoslers and industrial chemicals found.
There are now some studies that deal with the distribution of Pharmaca and their metabolites in above-ground marrows. There you mainly get the municipal wastewater contributions. Restures of pharmaceutical production form an additional source. In addition, there are trap in which Pharmaca are found in the groundwater – a consequence of inadequate secured mulldeponies. If Gulle is applied to the ground, agriculture is also a significant source of contamination.
Even state-of-the-art water treatment methods can not completely remove pharmaca – they were detected by the oven in drinking water. The concentrations of pharmacological effects in humans are due to gross arrangements about the found concentrations, but their detectability indicates at least a health problem.
Quantities consumed pharmaca
In Germany there is approx. 3.000 different substances approved for medical use (red list, 2002). The Federal Environmental Agency estimates that in 2000 approximately 7.000 tonnes of synthetic medicines were sold to the population (after all, almost 100 grams per capita of the population). The quantity of veterinary medicines sold to 2.320 tonnes (Vista Verde, 2002).
Another study expects consumption in the state of Brandenburg in 1999 to the entire Federal Republic and comes to a total consumption of Pharmaca for the human medicine of 3.200 tons. Of these alone are about. a third analgesics. The same study works with the consumption of antibiotics – 9.5 tonnes alone were used in the main agriculturally agricultural Brandenburg in animal production – against 2.1 tons in the same period in human medicine. The use of antibiotics as a growth demand in animal production is still allowed in Germany, while in other countries such as Z.B. Switzerland is no longer approved for this purpose.
Pharmaca and their metabolites are introduced into the watercourses with the treated water of the municipal clear works. Microbial degradation or adsorption on the ground set reduces its concentrations – but they are not completely eliminated. Previously applicable pharmaceuticals are the most commonly prescribed (paracetamol, acetylsalicylsaure, ibuprofen, diclofenac) and the most valid (Bezafibrate, Clofibric acid metabolized clofibrate, carbamazepine, Metoprolol). They can be found in concentrations of 1 microgram per liter in the treated wastewater. Another significant proportion of pharmaceutical freight is provided by metabolites; their concentrations can extend far abruptly.
The Elbe and her side arms
The Elbe as one of the Gross Stromas Europe’s flies from the source in the Giant Mountains in the Czech Republic to the mouth in the North Sea near Cuxhaven over a route from 1.091 km and streams a catchment area of 148.268 square kilometers, two-thirds of them belonged to the FRG. The three main trivies are the Moldova (Vltava), the trough and the Saale.
Recently, the Elbe was considered one of the most polluted rivers in Europe with severely degraded influences such as the trough, which in the terrace of the orifice the waxes"quality" a "abiotic liquid" reached. Since the decommissioning of the GDR, the ecological conditions have improved so far that Z.B. the salmon could be resettled.
The extensive sampling were made between 1998-2002 (cf. Illustration). The target substances of the analyzes mainly resulted from the consumption pattern mentioned above and a concept of the federal government committee for chemical security at a nationwide coordinated monitoring. In 1999, analyzes were carried out on bisphenol A and some steroid hormones. Bisphenol A is a typical industrial chemical produced in major quantities in Germany as an intermediate product for polycarbonate and epoxy resin (1995: estimated 210.000 tons). Meanwhile, signs of oicotoxicological effects of bisphenol A were found on aquatic organisms.
The resulting extensive data was evaluated by means of multivariate data analysis to find together between the substance examined for their concentration distribution profile along the Elbe and its side rivals and to make statements for degradability.
Factor analysis could be weighted individual substance groups in their visual occurrence – so have been different "hot spots" with increased pharmaca load on analgesics found, z.B. The magnifungs of Saale and Cloud. Continue riverwarts took this burden, but but still exceeded the values determined in front of the Mulde-Ornament. On the one hand, this shows the importance of side arms as entry sources and, on the other hand, the existence of the pharmaceuticals introduced.
The concentration amounts of the mouth of the Bilina were not considered in the factor analysis, since the concentrations found were so high that they were from a statistical viewing angle as "Excerpt" have to be considered.
The hierarchical cluster analysis serves as a method to identify sample removal venues with similar concentration distribution profiles with regard to the substance examined. The mouth of the Bilina (municipal wastewater from "Investor center" Usti, Chemical Society Spolchemie) was separated because of the high concentrations found by all other sample removal towns – the next group form the magnification of Saale and Cloud as well as the trial removal point Wittenberg. The ear mouth could be classified as little contaminated.
High concentrations of pharmaca and their metabolites in above-ground marries are mainly caused by the introduction of municipal wastewater of clarification into the Elbe and their side rivals – amongwhricht by the clearing of larger cities (so beats the clarification of Dresden-Kaditz with a daily entry of the antiepilectic carbamazepine of 2 , 75 kilograms to beech). The diffuse antibiotics entry as a result of agricultural gull deposit can not be undertaken.
In this case, the effectiveness of the clear works may be quite different, z.B. were found by the data analysis indications of insufficient effectively working clear works in the Czech?. For the Elbe and their individual tribulations, very targeted statements on peculiarities of the respective regional loads of individual river sections with Pharmaca could be made.
The evaluation of the determined concentration data is difficult because information with regard to okotoxicological effects of pharmaca and its metabolic products simply lacks, as investigations are not required for the approval procedures for the introduction of new medications. Here, within the legislation with regard to the necessary knowledge of degradability as well as chronic and acute effects of active agents, can be improved, also at EU level.